Often in game development you might find yourself in a position where you need to draw or travel along a curve. Unfortunately computers tend to have difficulties working with curves unless they have an exact function. In reality the same is true for straight lines, but their functions are relatively simple and unchanging. In this article we aim to learn a bit about Bèzier curves which is one of many methods to create curve functions.

**Prerequisites**

- Vector math
- Linear interpolation
- Algebra

A quadratic Bèzier curve is a curve that’s created with three points. The first and the third point define the start and the end of the curve. The intermediate point tends to not lie on the curve, although it’s not impossible, rather it influences the curvature of the line. Here’s what a quadratic Bèzier might look like:

Now this might seem confusing but what we’re actually doing is lerping along the line between between p0 and p1 while simultaneously lerping along the line between p1 and p2. We’re then taking the two points created by those two lerp functions and then lerping along that value to get our point on the curve. This looks something like this:

We can write it in code form as such:

function lerp(a, b, c) return a + (b - a) * c; end; function quadBezier(t, p0, p1, p2) local l1 = lerp(p0, p1, t); local l2 = lerp(p1, p2, t); local quad = lerp(l1, l2, t); return quad; end;

This function is alright and there’s nothing wrong with it, but there’s a more formal equation that’s commonly used for quadratic Bèzier curves.

To understand why this equation works we have to first think about how we would create a linear Bèzier curve (not really a curve now is it?). If you’re up to date on the prerequisites of the article then you already know how to do this in the form of a linear interpolation between two points!

We already know how to do a quadratic Bezier using three linear interpolations like we did in the code above so let’s try writing that out with our linear B(t) function:

Sure enough we’re left with the formal quadratic Bèzier curve equation!

function quadBezier(t, p0, p1, p2) return (1 - t)^2 * p0 + 2 * (1 - t) * t * p1 + t^2 * p2; end;

A cubic Bèzier curve is a curve that’s created with four points. The first and the fourth point define the start and the end of the curve. The intermediates point once again just like the quadratic curve influence the curvature of the line.

Here’s what a cubic Bèzier might look like:

Once again, this might seem a little confusing to wrap your head around but it’s a very similar process to what we were doing with the quadratic Bèzier curves. What we’re actually doing is lerping along the line between between p0 and p1 while simultaneously lerping along the line between p1 and p2 while also simultaneously lerping along the line between p2 and p3. We’re then taking the two points created by those the first and second lerp functions and then lerping along that value to get yet another point which we’ll call “a”. Then we’re taking two points created by the second and third lerp functions and lerping along the line created by those two points to get a point which we’ll call “b”. Finally, we lerp between “a” and “b” to get our point along the curve.

We can write this in function form:

function lerp(a, b, c) return a + (b - a) * c; end; function cubicBezier(t, p0, p1, p2, p3) local l1 = lerp(p0, p1, t); local l2 = lerp(p1, p2, t); local l3 = lerp(p2, p3, t); local a = lerp(l1, l2, t); local b = lerp(l2, l3, t); local cubic = lerp(a, b, t); return cubic; end;

Yet again, there’s a more formal equation for a cubic Bèzier:

In a similar sense we can pull apart the code from above to find why this equation works:

Sure enough, we’re left with the cubic Bèzier function!

function cubicBezier(t, p0, p1, p2, p3) return (1 - t)^3*p0 + 3*(1 - t)^2*t*p1 + 3*(1 - t)*t^2*p2 + t^3*p3; end;

It is possible to have Bèzier curves of higher degrees by following a similar pattern but for the purpose of this article we’ll stop here at cubic.

So now that we know a bit about how to calculate points along Bèzier curves let’s talk about some current issues we might face with them. To start, let’s see what happens when we try to interpolate along our curve at a fixed speed.

-- function for drawing a 2D line between two points function drawLine(p1, p2) local v = (p2 - p1); local f = Instance.new("Frame"); f.Size = UDim2.new(0, v.magnitude + 1, 0, 2); f.Position = UDim2.new(0,(p1.x + v.x/2) - f.Size.X.Offset * 0.5, 0, (p1.y + v.y/2) - f.Size.Y.Offset * 0.5); f.Rotation = math.deg(math.atan2(v.y, v.x)); f.BorderSizePixel = 0; f.BackgroundColor3 = Color3.new(); return f; end; function update(p0, p1, p2, p3, canvas) local last; canvas:ClearAllChildren(); -- clear any previous drawings for t = 0, 1, 0.01 do -- 0 <= t <= 1 local p = cubicBezier(t, p0, p1, p2, p3); if last then drawLine(last, p).Parent = canvas; end; last = p; end; end; function travelCurve(p0, p1, p2, p3, moving) for t = 0, 1, 0.01 do -- 0 <= t <= 1 local p = cubicBezier(t, p0, p1, p2, p3); moving.Position = UDim2.new(0, p.x - mp.AbsoluteSize.x/2, 0, p.y - mp.AbsoluteSize.y/2); game:GetService("RunService").RenderStepped:wait(); end; end;

Hmm, that doesn’t look like it’s traveling at a linear rate does it? Turns out the reason for this is because by nature of a Bèzier curve doesn’t produce points that are evenly distributed. To see this let’s just draw points along the curve.

-- function for drawing a 2D point function drawPoint(p1) local f = Instance.new("Frame"); f.Size = UDim2.new(0, 2, 0, 2); f.Position = UDim2.new(0, p1.x - f.Size.X.Offset * 0.5, 0, p1.y - f.Size.Y.Offset * 0.5); f.BorderSizePixel = 0; f.BackgroundColor3 = Color3.new(); return f; end; function update(p0, p1, p2, p3, canvas) local last; canvas:ClearAllChildren(); -- clear any previous drawings for t = 0, 1, 0.01 do -- 0 <= t <= 1 local p = cubicBezier(t, p0, p1, p2, p3); drawPoint(p).Parent = world; last = p; end; end;

As shown in the gif above, the points near the middle are more tightly packed together and the points closer to the start and end of the curve are further apart. This creates an effect of slowing down in the middle and getting faster near the start and end. So what can we do to fix this problem? In other words, how can we make it so that t = 0.25 is guaranteed to be 25% along the curve’s distance?

Turns out the simplest way to do this is a best guess method which isn’t perfect, but it’s so close that unless you’re working for NASA you won’t even notice it. To be clear, there are other ways to do this that are more accurate, but they require calculus which is out of the scope of this article.

Here’s how the process works:

-- n is the number of points -- func is the bezier curve function -- ... are the points used in the bezier curve function function length(n, func, ...) local sum, ranges, sums = 0, {}, {}; for i = 0, n-1 do -- calculate the current point and the next point local p1, p2 = func(i/n, ...), func((i+1)/n, ...) -- get the distance between them local dist = (p2 - p1).magnitude; -- store the information we gathered in a table that's indexed by the current distance ranges[sum] = {dist, p1, p2}; -- store the current sum so we can easily sort through it later table.insert(sums, sum); -- update the sum sum = sum + dist; end; -- return values return sum, ranges, sums; end;

With that in mind we can use that function in tandem with another to get a pretty good guess of the actual linear position t would represent along the Bezier curve:

function fixedBezier(n, t, func, ...) -- gather values from length function local length, ranges, sums = length(n, func, ...); -- find how far along the length we should be local T, near = t * length, 0; -- get the nearest point we calculated for _, n in next, sums do if (T - n) < 0 then break; end; near = n; end; local set = ranges[near]; -- linearly interpolate between that point and its neighbor local percent = (T - near)/set[1]; return set[2] + (set[3] - set[2]) * percent; end;

Here’s the problem, when our current function is used consecutively this causes a lot of lag! We’re using the length function which has to do a ton of point calculations every time for just one single point! Here’s the good news though, if we use a bit of object oriented programming we can store the values the length function and make sure to update it only when the points that create the Bèzier change!

Here’s a nice little Bèzier module that should work with any degree of Bèzier function:

local bezier = {}; function length(n, func, ...) local sum, ranges, sums = 0, {}, {}; for i = 0, n-1 do local p1, p2 = func(i/n, ...), func((i+1)/n, ...) local dist = (p2 - p1).magnitude; ranges[sum] = {dist, p1, p2}; table.insert(sums, sum); sum = sum + dist; end; return sum, ranges, sums; end; function bezier.new(func, n, ...) local self = setmetatable({}, {__index = bezier}); local sum, ranges, sums = length(n, func, ...); self.func = func; self.n = n; self.points = {...}; self.length = sum; self.ranges = ranges; self.sums = sums; return self; end; function bezier:setPoints(...) -- only update the length when the control points are changed local sum, ranges, sums = length(self.n, self.func, ...); self.points = {...}; self.length = sum; self.ranges = ranges; self.sums = sums; end; function bezier:calc(t) -- if you don't need t to be a percentage of distance return self.func(t, unpack(self.points)); end; function bezier:calcFixed(t) local T, near = t * self.length, 0; for _, n in next, self.sums do if (T - n) < 0 then break; end; near = n; end; local set = self.ranges[near]; local percent = (T - near)/set[1]; return set[2], set[3], percent; end; return bezier;

The last thing this article will cover is the idea of connecting multiple Bèzier curves together. For visual purposes the concept is easy. Just make sure that the start point of your next Bèzier curve is the same as the last point on the previous Bèzier curve. What becomes more difficult is making these curves into a single interpolation function. Luckily for us, it’s a similar process to Arc-length parameterization except we already have all the values we need!

For example let’s assume we’re using the module from above:

-- bzs is table with bezier urves in it in order traveled function travelPath(t, bzs) local totalLength, sums = 0, {} -- get total length of all curves, also order sums for sorting for _, bz in next, bzs do table.insert(sums, totalLength); totalLength = totalLength + bz.length; end; -- get percentage of total distance and find the bezier curve we're on local T, near, bz = t * totalLength, 0, bzs[1]; for i, n in ipairs(sums) do if (T - n) < 0 then break; end; near, bz = n, bzs[i]; end; -- get relative percentage traveled on given bezier curve local percent = (T - near)/bz.length; -- lerp across curve by percentage local a, b, c = bz:calcFixed(percent); return a + (b - a) * c; end;

That’s all there is to it! We can also use Bèzier curves in 3D since lerping with 3D and 2D vectors is the same.